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would like answered about the topic on the pink one. Collect these and take them away, and before the next lecture, you have a much better picture of where the class is at in the context of the topic. You could also do something similar using Vision, Heriot-Watt’s virtual learning environment.
It’s useful to let students see the intended learning outcomes
as well as hear them. For example, you could show them as a slide, but also talk the class through them, making the most of tone of voice, body language, eye contact, and so on to help your students to see what the intended outcomes actually mean in practice. Don’t feel you need to read the slide out to them verbatim - students can read from a screen quite a lot faster than we can talk, and they get quite bored (or even irritated) if we read out to them things they can already see for themselves.
The intended learning outcomes can also be revisited during your last minute or two of the session. Near the scheduled end of the lecture, it is useful to return to your slide of the intended outcomes.
graphs and charts, drawings, and other sorts of visual information. In some subjects, slides tend to be mostly plain text on the screen, often bullet points giving the main sub-topics that are going to
be discussed, or questions which are going to be addressed in
the lecture. However, it can get quite boring for students if all the slides are just text in a very similar format, and most lecturers now deliberately include visual stimulus on at least some of their slides.
Slides allow your students to see things on the screen at the same time as they hear about them from you, and this means a better chance of your students making sense there and then of the topic in hand. Usually, you can see your slides on a computer screen in front of you, without turning around to the main screen onto which the image is projected, which means you can talk about your slides without turning your back on your audience.
Slides are also a useful comfort blanket for us as lecturers. A well-produced set of slides gives an immediate impression of
a professional and credible lecture, even when we’re new at
it. Slides can also be a way of making our lectures much more  exible, and allowing us to respond to what actually happens in the session. For example, it can be useful to have prepared (say) 30 slides, but only to intend to use 20 of them at the session, with the others being there in case there is time to go into more depth about particular aspects, or to have a ready answer available for anticipated questions from our students. Slides can be released before the lecture, if necessary, with the caveat that not all slides may be used. Then after the lecture, once you know what slides you actually used, release the  nalised set of slides to students.
If you’re con dent already regarding using technology in lecture contexts, you can also slip in video-clips, visits to websites
and online live searches by putting appropriate links into slides.
It’s worth remembering however that these may not work if connection to the internet is interrupted, or if there are compatibility issues between the computer and the sources you wish to use. Also, it’s important to make sure that all important information is going to be easily visible to all students in the lecture - print too small to read is infuriating to them.
FURTHER READING
Roberts, D., 2017. The engagement agenda, multimedia learning and the use of images in higher education lecturing: or, how to end death by PowerPoint. Journal of Further and Higher Education, pp.1-17.
Or go for his thought-provoking new book now on Amazon at https://www.amazon.co.uk/Ultimate Guide-Visual-Lectures- ebook/dp/B07G9F51H6
POWERPOINT USER TIP
If you’re using slides, you could make your very last slide repeat
the intended learning outcomes. You can go instantly to that last slide simply by entering ‘99’ (or any number greater than or equal to that of the number of that last slide) at the keyboard and pressing ‘enter’. This means that even if you haven’t managed to get through all of the slides in your presentation, you can seamlessly go to that rounding-up slide. You can then ask your students about how well they now feel that they have achieved the outcomes, possibly asking them to show for each outcome in turn whether they feel they have ‘completely achieved’ or ‘partly achieved’ or ‘not yet achieved’ it by show of hands raised - two, one, and none respectively. This not only reminds the students of what they should now be able to do, but also lets you know how well your lecture worked.
WHAT ABOUT HANDOUTS?
You may well remember being issued with handout materials at
most lectures, and organising and  ling these, and using them as
key revision aids later. Handout materials have virtually disappeared now due to practicalities including  nancial constraints and the fact that students rarely consult them after the event! That doesn’t mean that the content of such materials isn’t given out any more - but
now resource materials are normally made available to students electronically. They’re often nowadays posted online in advance of live sessions, both to support students with visual impairments or dyslexia and with the hope (or expectation) that students will use them before each lecture and revisit them later, and perhaps download them and annotate them with their own notes and questions.
The relevant links to such resource materials may well be included in slides used at lectures, so that the materials themselves can
be located simply by clicking a link on the slides when students download the slides.
DESIGNING SLIDES FOR LECTURES
Most lecturers use slides to show text, images, links to websites, quizzes, and many other illustrations or activities. In many subjects, slides can be quite sophisticated, containing diagrams, photos,
POWERPOINT USER TIP
Prepare paper copies of all of your slides, say six per page, and lay these out in front of you if possible at the start of your lecture with the numbers of the slides clearly visible on your paper copies. When giving your presentation, you can go to any slide at any time, and in any order, simply by keying in ‘5’ then ‘enter’ to go to slide 5, ‘23’ for slide 23, and so on. This is particularly useful when students ask a question and you may want to go back to an earlier slide, or for when time is running out and you want to skip ahead to a later slide, and so on. It gives you full control of which slides you show and when, without having to clumsily run backwards or forwards through slides you’re not actually going to use on that occasion. Remember, however, to tick off on your paper copy which slides you did in fact use (or not use) so that later you still have a record of exactly what you covered in that particular lecture.
HINT
Even when lots of articles, books and resources are linked to lectures, there’s no guarantee that students will use them as we intend. It’s therefore useful to accompany such resources with suggested activities for students to do before - or during- or after using them. For example, a few short questions to answer, or something asking students to identify the three main ideas in a resource, or to propose a weakness in a particular document.
14 IN AT THE DEEP END | LEARNING + TEACHING academy


































































































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